Medical rehabilitation involves procedures and services that aim to restore or supplement loss of function arisen from diseases (movement disability, speech problems, decreased heart function, infertility, etc.) or to develop new, compensatory skills.
Multiple types of medical rehabilitation services are available, such as:
- respiratory rehabilitation (pulmonary rehabilitation), and
- addictology rehabilitation.
The purpose of musculoskeletal rehabilitation is to ease different symptoms and pain and decrease the extent of potential deformities and musculoskeletal disability and to aid the patient’s fastest possible return to everyday life. The rehabilitation program is coordinated by professionals, it depends on the patient’s actual health condition, and depending on this it is organized within in-or outpatient facilities. Nursing and medical care is supplemented with other therapeutic options, such as individual or group physiotherapy, device-physiotherapy, massage and ergotherapy.
The rehabilitation program can be further supplemented with psychological consulting, speech and language therapist trainings or social counseling and social administration. Patients are preferably provided with all the medical aids and rehabilitation equipment necessary for their movement, self-supply and home nursing care. An important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation is to prepare patients and their families for the life and tasks at home and to provide lifestyle and dietary counseling as well.
When is musculoskeletal rehabilitation recommended?
Musculoskeletal rehabilitation might be necessary in different cases, for example, for post stroke patients, patients with musculoskeletal disorders, patients with post traumatic injuries, or for those who underwent spinal, bone or joint surgeries.
The rehabilitation of patients who suffered a heart attack starts at the hospital, at the intensive care unit. After fast and effective hospital service, patients might leave the hospital several days after the heart attack, but thereafter personalized post-hospital care treatment (rehabilitation) is necessary. The hospital phase of the rehabilitation process (early phase) involves physiotherapy of patients under the surveillance of a physiotherapist and a doctor.
The physiotherapist assesses the patient’s stamina and defines the required amount of physiotherapy for the patient. Rehabilitation continues after hospital discharge, in the second phase of the rehabilitation at designated outpatient facilities or special convalescent hospitals (sanatoriums) – as inpatient care. For further information, contact you treating physician at the cardiology department.
Outpatient rehabilitation services are available in cardiology centers, where patients apply for designated rehabilitation appointments. Inpatient rehabilitation treatment is available for those who suffered higher-risk heart attacks with consequences or suffer from other severe comorbidities. The rehabilitation program’s efficacy is provided by the teamwork of specialist cardiologists, physiotherapists, psychologists, dietitians and if necessary, with the involvement of social workers.
After the first two, supervised phases of the rehabilitation procedure, the third phase comes, where the patient performs independently the exercises they acquired before. Beside musculoskeletal and cardiovascular rehabilitation, psychological rehabilitation is also extremely important. With the involvement of the proper specialists, the disease-inherent anxiety can be eased. Patients’ health education and development forms another important part of rehabilitation, while patients learn about their diseases and the basics of the healthy lifestyle. They also learn to identify health-threatening factors (high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, high blood cholesterol levels, etc.) and try to cease them.
Respiratory (pulmonary) rehabilitation
The purpose of respiratory rehabilitation is to improve respiratory functions and teaching the patient to live their life the fullest. Among patients with respiratory disease, those are the ideal subjects for respiratory rehabilitation whose condition can be kept in an equilibrium with pharmacological therapy, who are not affected by any other severe comorbidities and who are motivated enough to devote time to participate in the complex rehabilitation program. A significant part of the rehabilitation is respiratory and thoracic physiotherapy, stress training besides acquiring breathing techniques which aids the development of strength and stamina.
With the help of rehabilitation treatment, the purpose is to achieve such a health and physical condition in which the patient’s symptoms (shortness of breath) stops, even on greater exertion. After the assessment of the patient’s life quality, stamina and daily activity, a rehabilitation team (medical specialist, physiotherapist, pulmonology assistant, dietitian, social worker and a relative) cooperates with the continuously and thoroughly informed, active patient in performing rehabilitation exercises.
When is respiratory rehabilitation recommended?
It is recommended primarily for COPD and asthmatic patients, or patients with other lung diseases (interstitial lung diseases), pre- or postoperative conditions, thoracic wall diseases (pectus excavatum and carinatum, Bechterew disease), and certain neuromuscular diseases.
The complex treatment of patients with malignant diseases involves oncological rehabilitation, with which adequate life quality might be achieved. The personalized, inseparable physical and psychological rehabilitation process extends from the diagnosis, throughout the treatment, until an asymptomatic state is reached, or, if the treatment is not successful, it extends to the upcoming stages, until death.
Physical and psychological rehabilitation creates the possibility to living a life with proper human dignity. Oncological rehabilitation is provided by the organized cooperation of a team, focusing on the improvement of physical condition, providing counseling, information and psychological support in order to improve the patient’s condition.
One and maybe the most important factor hindering the recovery of addict patients is the addiction sustaining environment. The rehabilitation facilities were created so that to eliminate these factors. Rehabilitation is a long process in an inpatient facility which may last for months.
In Hungary, several addictology rehabilitation facilities are available, where personal and group therapy sessions are provided, and groups of relatives are also assembled to help and support the addict’s family. Support groups are also included in the rehabilitation methods, which focuses on the common, achievable aim and the strength of the group, rather than the venue. Such group is for example the AA group (Anonym Alcoholic group), where addicts gain strength from supporting each other to fight alcohol. In case of addiction, after the acute withdrawal period, patients can be referred to rehabilitation by psychiatrists, addictologists or the GP.
When is addictology rehabilitation recommended?
If somebody is an alcohol, narcotic drug or recreational drug addict or gambles, and as a result of their addiction, they pursue the object of their addiction even when it does not provide enjoyment for them. Addicts can hardly control themselves and their actions, and their desire for their addiction distorts reality. Addiction continues despite of the several negative impacts and the possibly occurring damages to the health state, too.
During the rehabilitation process of a psychiatric patient the purpose is not to achieve an asymptomatic state, but to help the patient’s harmonic reintegration to society. The main objective of rehabilitation is to help the patient to achieve the ability to supply themselves. Patients affected with psychiatric disorders which involves their emotions and motivation can comply with these after a long-term rehabilitation process. The rehabilitation includes pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment as well as work-therapy. During work therapy, the patient’s remaining skills and capacities are assessed, and they try to find the most suitable activity for them.
Outpatient services are provided by inpatient rehabilitation departments, where the possibilities of the patients who had been referred to the facility are evaluated, and the outpatient’s rehabilitation program is implemented. Rehabilitation can be provided in daycare hospitals (as an outpatient service), of which advantage is that it does not rive the patient from their environment. There are institutions which provide treatment only in a particular period of the day or rehabilitation treatment might happen in an inpatient environment, at psychiatric rehabilitation inpatient departments. The aim is to restore complete or partial ability to work, to achieve ability to self-supply and to prevent development of disabilities.